Here are the terms you will run across and the definitions:
Inversion- An increase of temperature with height
Stable lapse rate- A temperature increase with height that is less than 5 degrees C per kilometer
Dry adiabatic lapse rate- The rate of temperature change of a dry parcel of air (near 10 C per kilometers in low levels of atmosphere)
Moist adiabatic lapse rate- The rate of temperature change of a saturated parcel of air (varies with rate of latent heat release). Also known as wet and pseudoadiabatic lapse rate.
Superadiabatic lapse rate- A temperature change with height that is greater than 10 C per kilometer. Occurs in situations with intense surface heating or over a warm body of water as a cold air mass advects over it (Great Lakes in late Fall)
Isothermal layer- Temperature remains constant with increasing height
Conditionally unstable lapse rate- Temperature decrease with height between the wet and dry adiabatic lapse rate
Parcel lapse rate- Rate of cooling of a parcel of air as it ascends, first at the dry adiabatic lapse rate to the LCL then at the wet adiabatic lapse rate afterwards
L57- The rate of temperature change in C per kilometer between the 700 and 500 millibar levels. Used to assess the cooling rate in the middle levels of the troposphere.